bulletPhoto papers
bulletPhoto intermediates
bulletNegative and positive film
bulletAdditional Services

Reprographic Process

The photo duplication of drawing for engineering, architectural, and geological application is fundamental to a full service reproduction house such as ours.  And because it is a process requiring extreme accuracy, extra care is taken at our location to insure and maintain the integrity of original drawings throughout each phase of processing. This is important for advertising reproductions, design illustrations, school materials and printed circuits.

Photo Drafting

You may need to reproduce a continuous tone print (one with gradations of black to white, plus grays) onto mylar; whether it is an aerial photograph, a photo of machine parts, a rendering or a portrait.  To do this, a halftone screen must be used to change the continuous tones to dots of various sizes; otherwise further reproduction results in muddy prints with no definition or contrast. A half-tone negative is made with the appropriate number of lines per inch, to suit your original and method of further reproduction, chosen by skilled camera operators. Then it is blown back onto fixed-line Mylar. Wash-off Mylar will not resolve dots as well.  Due to the processing, some of the dots will actually wash off.

If elements of your drawing must be at full intensity, such as callouts, or title blocks, these should be on a separate 

Overlay using targets or Graphic Reproduction’s Pin -graphic System. Another negative is made at full intensity, (a line negative) and the two are blown back in registration to one another on final fixed-line mylar. The result is a visually pleasing halftone photograph with additional information that makes clearly readable, presentation quality Diazo or Xerox print.

Restoration

Old drawings can be restored by opaquing negatives to remove stains and crease marks, or to scribe in faded lines. This can be an expensive and time consuming process, depending on the condition of the drawing to be restored.

Formatting

To change the format of your existing drawings, without the time and expense of redrafting, images can be moved photographically into different positions. Through the process of formatting, our camera technicians can change the position of an image within an existing format or totally remove the image and re-position it into another existing drawing or title block format. This is accomplished by shooting separate negatives of the title block information and each of the images to be repositioned or deleted. Negatives are then multi exposed onto desired photo material.

Formatting is often employed in the pin-registered overlay system.

Screening

Screens are used most commonly in the architectural and engineering industries for the preparation of subordinate imaging and in overlay drafting. Greater clarity can be achieved by subduing the background and thereby allowing certain areas to stand out more distinctly. A frequent use of screening is on cover sheets, where rendering can be subdued behind printed copy for visual impact.

Lines per inch refers to the number of rows of dots in a square inch. Percentage refers to the size of the dot.  For example, a 10% dot will create a light gray effect, while an 80% dot will be very dark with almost a solid black effect. Bi-angle screens are used primarily to soften the edges of contour and meandering lines for a smoother, uniform effect.

Screened prints and halftone prints are different.  Screened prints are used for reducing line intensity, whereas halftones are for existing photographs that must be screened.

Dropout halftones are used effectively for renderings and sketches, because only the image, i.e., the rendering itself, is screened, leaving the print with a clean, non-screened background.

Halftones are effective when drafting over existing photographic images, i.e., site work, remodeling of buildings, equipment placement and other graphic design functions.

CONTACT and PROJECTION

Contact is the process of reproducing a same size print on reproduction material in contact with a translucent original or intermediate, using a vacuum frame or our Roll Vac.

Projection is the process of enlargement or reduction through a lens system, and usually involves the making of a negative as an intermediate step.

R-20 Opti-Copy Registrator

When you want accurate reproductions of renderings, drawing or overlays, our R-20 Opti-Copy Registrator offers the ultimate in precision camera work.  Its uses are many; advertising art, mapping, courtroom exhibits, printed circuit negatives and any use where great clarity and precision are important.  This camera is so precise that it takes a computer to keep up with it, and is the latest innovation in photo reproduction technology.

The R-20 is designed for high quality production and broad versatility, making it possible to expedite even the largest jobs with greater proficiency. Blowbacks as good or better than the original, result from performance of the fine condenser system. The finest lines and smallest details are maintained. Significant reduction in turnaround time is accomplished because even exposures are made over the full blow- back much more quickly.

Where normal printing is on a fixed line mylar, negatives can be printed on several suitable photographic materials. The various elements of architectural drawing can be interchanged and selective areas of the drawing can be screened by multiple exposures.

Large originals are easily accommodated with the use of a 54” x 96” copyboard. Single shot enlargements can be made up to or down to 10x with no loss in clarity.  Any size change you want will be accurate to within 1/1,000th of an inch.  Screen tints, usually 20% to 80% can be made with 65, 85, or 120 lines per inch.

The negative is 8.5” x 11”.  Film can be made up to 48” x 10’ in one piece. The large format is desirable where maximum image is essential.

When more than one form of reproduction is de- sired, the Opti-Copy 20 camera makes it possible to reproduce photographic prints and offset plates from the same negative without the cost of additional negative enlargements.

This digitally focused and computer calibrated camera produces reductions, enlargements, restorations, and overlay drafting.

Photo papers

The various photographic papers that Graphic Reproduction offers its clients are reproduced on high-quality opaque, matte or glossy materials.  They are available in white, gray or black image and/or background and can be enhanced with a screen.

High contrast opaque paper

This Photo Paper is intended for use as presentation prints, camera ready proofs, or originals for paste-up drafting.  It is excellent for dry mounting and available in sizes up to 42” x 96” without splicing.  The drafting surface is receptive to ink markers but will not accept water-base markers.  This paper is not recommended as an intermediate for the diazo process.  A negative is required for printing.

Negative paper prints

This Photo Paper is the same as High Contrast Opaque Paper with the image in reverse.  Some of its uses are, copying old blue prints, presentations, indoor signs, covers, and reports. It is excellent for mounting.

Continuous tone (RCN) paper

This is a continuous tone black and white photo paper, which holds all tonal values. The surface is Matte and it is a double weight paper.  It is available in sizes up to 42” x 96”. This should be used when your original has a lot of shading or is a continuous tone negative.  You must specify if you want border or borderless.  This is excellent for mounting.

Continuous tone (RCF) paper

This is the same as Continuous Tone (RCN) Paper except it has a glossy image.

Code Description

Per Sq. Ft.

5032

High Contrast Paper

$ 6.00
5033 TPP-5 HCP Paper, (Black with White Lines) 9.00
5015 Continuous Tone, (RCN or RCF) 10.00

Photo intermediates

Fixed-line mylar

Fixed-Line Mylar has a matte surface on two sides, which accepts both pencil and ink.  This Mylar require a chemical eradicator for image removal, and is available in sizes up to 48” x 96”. It is suitable as reduced scale master for additional drafting.

Economy photo mylar

Economy Photo Mylar (formally known as Silver Slick) is a 4 mil. Polyester, archival material made from an original. It is an intermediate, translucent material with either a clear film or single matte surface.  The image is easily removed, resulting in little or no background so that erasures will not shadow on blueline copies. Drawings reproduced on Economy Photo Mylar will not fade, yellow, or smear.  They are optically clear without the shadows, textures, and cloudiness of some Diazo Films. Economy Photo Mylar accepts pencil and ink drafting and holds excellent scale.

Code Description Per Sq. Ft.
5025 Clear Film Mylar, 4 mil $ 8.50
5027 Negative Film Mylar, 4 mil 8.50
5029 Economy Photo Mylar, Clear and Matte One 8.00
5031 Fixed Line Mylar, Matte II, 4 mil 8.50

Our architectural and engineering Mylar for contact or projections are offered in 4-mil polyester based materials with a single or double matte surface. These superior films are designed for the particular needs of reproduction and assure you excellent drafting surfaces and dimensional stability.

Please contact us or your Sales Representative for the correct photo selection for your special needs.

Negative and positive film

Photographic Film

These are clear base film reproducible, available in sizes up to 48” x 96”, and have no drafting surface.

Duplicating Film

Duplicating Film is a material, which is use for as an intermediate step in reproducing large quantities of same size reduced, or enlarges duplicate film copies.

Positive and Negative Film

These materials provides high quality clear base duplicates of an original which are ideal for view-Graphs masters for color overlays, or intermediates for silk-screening, paper prints, and photo Mylar.

Halftone Negatives

This kind of negative is necessary whenever photographs or continuous tone drawings are to be reproduced by offset, Xeorx or Diazo printing.

Graphicopy negatives, Size 8.5” x 11”

Code Description Per Each
5046 Line Negative $ 12.50
5048 Halftone Negatives 30.00
5047 Restoration Negative 30.00
5049 Cont. Tone Negatives 30.00

Negatives

Code

Description

Per Sq. Foot
5021 Line Negative

$ 10.00

5025 Clear Film Mylar, 4 mil 8.50
5027 Negative Film Mylar, 4 mil 8.50

Additional Services

Following is a list of additional processes which are related to several areas of reprographic work and which can add slightly to the overall cost of your order.  These include ghost screening to provide line contrast for easy reading, extra exposures, and manual registration of originals.

Code Description Per Price
5047 Restoration Negatives Each  $ 6.00
5550 Excessive Opaqueing Each 4.50
5551 Mosaic Splicing Each 6.00
5552 Labor, Special Handing 6 mins 4.50
5553 Labor, Over Time 6 mins 6.00

 

Code Description Per Each
5002 Mylar Punched Strip $ 3.00
5007 Metal Pin Reg. Bar 15.00
5042 Additional Exposures 3.00
5043 Manual Registration 8.00
5044 Copy Board Registration 8.00
5045 Ghost Screen (Contact) 3.00
5050 Graphicopy Additional Exposures 3.00
5051 Graphicopy Projection Screening 7.00
 

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Last modified: August 10, 2006